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Département Biologie des Génomes

par Clubs génome, EQYY - publié le , mis à jour le


  • Vendredi 23 mars 11:00-12:00 - Antoine Coulon - Genome functions in space and time, Institut Curie - CNRS

    Probing the spatiotemporal kinetics of transcription at the single-RNA level

    Résumé : The synthesis of mature messenger RNA molecules from the DNA sequence of a gene is a central step in gene expression and is regulated at many levels (transcription initiation, elongation, splicing...). Yet, at the single-gene level, the stochastic kinetics of such regulatory processes and their coordination in space and time remain poorly understood.
    Using the RNA-labeling techniques MS2 and PP7, we can now image transcription “in 4D” to probe the processes involved in mRNA synthesis. More specifically, with this approach, we are able to visualize and monitor in real-time the position and the amount of nascent transcripts from individual genes of interest, with high temporal resolution and single-molecule sensitivity. The possibility of using two colors (e.g. to label either two distinct parts of a single gene or two different genes) opens up a vast range of possibilities to study the kinetics and coordination between the molecular mechanisms involved in transcriptional regulation. A methodological challenge is the analysis and interpretation of the resulting datasets, i.e. stochastic and noisy transcriptional time traces. To this end, we also developed a computational method based on auto/cross-correlation analysis to reveal the signatures of the underlying molecu­lar processes and extract quantitative information about single-RNA transcription kinetics.
    I will present these imaging and data analysis approaches and how we applied them to understand the kinetics of single-RNA synthesis, sense/antisense transcription and gene bursting, as well as our future directions to study transcriptional coordination in four dimensions.
    Contact : Daan Noordermeer <daan.noordermeer>

    Lieu : Bibliothèque- bâtiment 34 - Campus CNRS de Gif-sur-Yvette

  • Vendredi 30 mars 14:00-15:00 - Gisou Van der Goot - Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

    Function and dynamics of protein palmitoylation

    Résumé : Protein function can be regulated by a variety of post-translational modifications. One that is of particular interest, but still poorly understood due to the technical difficulties in studying it, is S-acylation, the only reversible lipid modification of proteins. Over recent years it has become apparent that 10% or more of the human proteome can undergo this modification. It is mediated by polytopic transmembrane enzymes of the DHHC family of which human have 23, flies and worms about 20. Mutations in these enzymes have been associated with higher brain function disorders and cancer. Removal of the acyl chain occurs through the action of Acyl Protein thioesterases, of which so far 5 have been identified.
    The presentation will be focused on palmitoylation in the endoplasmic reticulum, where a variety of key functions are regulated by palmitoylation. I will describe how the architecture of the compartment is controlled by palmitoylation via the ZDHHC6 palmitoyltransferase. This indicates that the activity of this enzyme needs to be tightly regulated. I will show that it is in fact controlled by a cascade of palmitoylation, reminiscent of the cascades observed in phosphorylation and ubiquitination.
    Contact : Carmela GIGLIONE <carmela.giglione>

    Lieu : Bibliothèque- bâtiment 34 - Campus CNRS de Gif-sur-Yvette

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