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Accueil > Départements > Biologie des Génomes > Mireille BETERMIER : Réarrangements programmés du génome

Publications de l’équipe


  • O. Arnaiz, E. Van Dijk, M. Bétermier, M. Lhuillier-Akakpo, A. de Vanssay, S. Duharcourt, E. Sallet, J. Gouzy, et L. Sperling, « Improved methods and resources for paramecium genomics: transcription units, gene annotation and gene expression », BMC genomics, vol. 18, nᵒ 1, p. 483, 2017.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: The 15 sibling species of the Paramecium aurelia cryptic species complex emerged after a whole genome duplication that occurred tens of millions of years ago. Given extensive knowledge of the genetics and epigenetics of Paramecium acquired over the last century, this species complex offers a uniquely powerful system to investigate the consequences of whole genome duplication in a unicellular eukaryote as well as the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that drive speciation. High quality Paramecium gene models are important for research using this system. The major aim of the work reported here was to build an improved gene annotation pipeline for the Paramecium lineage. RESULTS: We generated oriented RNA-Seq transcriptome data across the sexual process of autogamy for the model species Paramecium tetraurelia. We determined, for the first time in a ciliate, candidate P. tetraurelia transcription start sites using an adapted Cap-Seq protocol. We developed TrUC, multi-threaded Perl software that in conjunction with TopHat mapping of RNA-Seq data to a reference genome, predicts transcription units for the annotation pipeline. We used EuGene software to combine annotation evidence. The high quality gene structural annotations obtained for P. tetraurelia were used as evidence to improve published annotations for 3 other Paramecium species. The RNA-Seq data were also used for differential gene expression analysis, providing a gene expression atlas that is more sensitive than the previously established microarray resource. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a gene annotation pipeline tailored for the compact genomes and tiny introns of Paramecium species. A novel component of this pipeline, TrUC, predicts transcription units using Cap-Seq and oriented RNA-Seq data. TrUC could prove useful beyond Paramecium, especially in the case of high gene density. Accurate predictions of 3' and 5' UTR will be particularly valuable for studies of gene expression (e.g. nucleosome positioning, identification of cis regulatory motifs). The P. tetraurelia improved transcriptome resource, gene annotations for P. tetraurelia, P. biaurelia, P. sexaurelia and P. caudatum, and Paramecium-trained EuGene configuration are available through ParameciumDB ( ). TrUC software is freely distributed under a GNU GPL v3 licence ( ).
    Mots-clés : ANGE, Autogamy, Cap-Seq, Ciliate, DBG, Differential gene expression, Gene annotation, MICMAC, RNA-Seq, TSS.

  • E. Dubois, N. Mathy, V. Régnier, J. Bischerour, C. Baudry, R. Trouslard, et M. Bétermier, « Multimerization properties of PiggyMac, a domesticated piggyBac transposase involved in programmed genome rearrangements », Nucleic Acids Research, 2017.
    Résumé : During sexual processes, the ciliate Paramecium eliminates 25-30% of germline DNA from its somatic genome. DNA elimination includes excision of ∼45 000 short, single-copy internal eliminated sequences (IESs) and depends upon PiggyMac (Pgm), a domesticated piggyBac transposase that is essential for DNA cleavage at IES ends. Pgm carries a core transposase region with a putative catalytic domain containing three conserved aspartic acids, and a downstream cysteine-rich (CR) domain. A C-terminal extension of unknown function is predicted to adopt a coiled-coil (CC) structure. To address the role of the three domains, we designed an in vivo complementation assay by expressing wild-type or mutant Pgm-GFP fusions in cells depleted for their endogenous Pgm. The DDD triad and the CR domain are essential for Pgm activity and mutations in either domain have a dominant-negative effect in wild-type cells. A mutant lacking the CC domain is partially active in the presence of limiting Pgm amounts, but inactive when Pgm is completely absent, suggesting that presence of the mutant protein increases the overall number of active complexes. We conclude that IES excision involves multiple Pgm subunits, of which at least a fraction must contain the CC domain.
    Mots-clés : DBG, DSMC, MICMAC.


  • K. Maliszewska-Olejniczak, J. Gruchota, R. Gromadka, C. Denby Wilkes, O. Arnaiz, N. Mathy, S. Duharcourt, M. Bétermier, et J. K. Nowak, « TFIIS-Dependent Non-coding Transcription Regulates Developmental Genome Rearrangements », PLoS genetics, vol. 11, nᵒ 7, p. e1005383, 2015.
    Résumé : Because of their nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide a unique opportunity to study the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the communication between germline and somatic lineages. In these unicellular eukaryotes, a new somatic nucleus develops at each sexual cycle from a copy of the zygotic (germline) nucleus, while the old somatic nucleus degenerates. In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, the genome is massively rearranged during this process through the reproducible elimination of repeated sequences and the precise excision of over 45,000 short, single-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IESs). Different types of ncRNAs resulting from genome-wide transcription were shown to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of genome rearrangements. To understand how ncRNAs are produced from the entire genome, we have focused on a homolog of the TFIIS elongation factor, which regulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional pausing. Six TFIIS-paralogs, representing four distinct families, can be found in P. tetraurelia genome. Using RNA interference, we showed that TFIIS4, which encodes a development-specific TFIIS protein, is essential for the formation of a functional somatic genome. Molecular analyses and high-throughput DNA sequencing upon TFIIS4 RNAi demonstrated that TFIIS4 is involved in all kinds of genome rearrangements, including excision of ~48% of IESs. Localization of a GFP-TFIIS4 fusion revealed that TFIIS4 appears specifically in the new somatic nucleus at an early developmental stage, before IES excision. RT-PCR experiments showed that TFIIS4 is necessary for the synthesis of IES-containing non-coding transcripts. We propose that these IES+ transcripts originate from the developing somatic nucleus and serve as pairing substrates for germline-specific short RNAs that target elimination of their homologous sequences. Our study, therefore, connects the onset of zygotic non coding transcription to the control of genome plasticity in Paramecium, and establishes for the first time a specific role of TFIIS in non-coding transcription in eukaryotes.
    Mots-clés : ANGE, Cell Lineage, DBG, Genome, germ cells, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, MICMAC, Paramecium tetraurelia, RNA Polymerase II, RNA, Long Noncoding, Transcription, Genetic, Transcriptional Elongation Factors.
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Principales publications avant 2015

- Marmignon, A., Bischerour, J., Silve, A., Fojcik, C., Dubois, E., Arnaiz, O., Kapusta, A., Malinsky, S., Bétermier, M. (2014) Ku-mediated coupling of DNA cleavage and repair during programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. PLoS Genet. 10(8):e1004552

- Bétermier, M., Bertrand, P. Lopez, B.S. (2014). Is non-homologous end-joining really an inherently error-prone process ? PLoS Genet. 10(1) : e1004086.

- Arnaiz, O., Mathy, N., Baudry, C., Malinsky, S., Aury, J.M., Denby-Wilkes, C., Garnier, O., Labadie, K., Lauderdale, B., Le Mouël, A., Marmignon, A., Nowacki, M., Poulain, J., Prajer, M., Wincker, P., Meyer, E., Duharcourt, S., Duret, L., Bétermier, M.*, Sperling, L.* (2012) The Paramecium germline genome provides a niche for intragenic parasitic DNA : Evolutionary Dynamics of Internal Eliminated Sequences. PLoS Genet. 8(10):e1002984. * co-corresponding authors.

- Dubois, E., Bischerour, J., Marmignon, A., Mathy, N., Régnier, V., Bétermier, M. (2012) Transposon invasion of the Paramecium germline genome countered by a domesticated PiggyBac transposase and the NHEJ pathway. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 2012:436196. Epub 2012 Jul 22.

- Kapusta, A.*, Matsuda, A.*, Marmignon, A., Ku, M., Silve, A., Meyer, E., Forney, J.D., Malinsky, S., Bétermier, M. (2011) Highly precise and developmentally programmed genome assembly in Paramecium requires Ligase IV-dependent end joining. PLoS Genet. 7(4) :e1002049. * equal contribution.

- Baudry, C.*, Malinsky, S.*, Restituito, M., Kapusta, A., Rosa, S., Meyer, E., Bétermier, M. (2009) PiggyMac, a domesticated piggyBac transposase involved in programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Genes & Dev. 23 : 2478-2483.

- Gratias, A., Lepère, G., Garnier, O., Rosa, S., Duharcourt, S., Malinsky, S., Meyer, E., Bétermier, M. (2008) Developmentally programmed DNA splicing in Paramecium reveals short-distance crosstalk between DNA cleavage sites. Nucl. Acids Res. 36 :3244-3251.

- Aury, J.M., Jaillon, O., Duret, L., Noel, B., Jubin, C., Porcel, B.M., Segurens, B., Daubin, V., Anthouard, V., Aiach, N., Arnaiz, O., Billaut, A., Beisson, J., Blanc, I., Bouhouche, K., Camara, F., Duharcourt, S., Guigo, R., Gogendeau, D., Katinka, M., Keller, A.M., Kissmehl, R., Klotz, C., Koll, F., Le Mouel, A., Lepere, G., Malinsky, S., Nowacki, M., Nowak, J.K., Plattner, H., Poulain, J., Ruiz, F., Serrano, V., Zagulski, M., Dessen, P., Bétermier, M., Weissenbach, J., Scarpelli, C., Schachter, V., Sperling, L., Meyer, E., Cohen, J., Wincker, P. (2006) Global trends of whole-genome duplications revealed by the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Nature 444 :171-178.

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