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Département Biologie des Génomes

par Clubs génome, EQYY - publié le , mis à jour le


  • Vendredi 15 novembre 11:00-12:00 - David LALAOUNA - Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Strasbourg

    The double life of bacterial RNA transcripts

    Résumé : Discovered in the early 80’s, small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are depicted as key actors in virtually all aspect of bacterial physiology (e.g. primary or secondary metabolism, cell division, virulence) [1-2]. These 50 to 500 nt-long RNA fragments are mostly involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of a subset of messenger RNAs forming their interactomes.
    Bacterial regulatory RNAs have first been characterized as exclusively originating from intergenic regions. However, recent high-throughput screenings revealed that other loci, such as untranslated regions of mRNAs [3] or transcribed spacers of tRNA transcripts [4], also serve as a source of functional regulatory RNAs.
    [1] Carrier et al., 2018. Annu Rev Microbiol. 72:141-161
    [2] Wagner and Romby, 2015. Adv Genet. 90:133-208
    [3] Lalaouna et al., 2019. NAR 47:9871-9887
    [4] Lalaouna et al., 2015. Mol Cell 58:393-405

    Contact : Philippe BOULOC (philippe.bouloc

    Lieu : Salle A. Kalogeropoulos - bâtiment 400 - Campus d'Orsay

  • Vendredi 22 novembre 11:00-12:00 - Andrew E. Firth - University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

    Investigating RNA virus gene expression with comparative genomics and ribosome profiling

    Résumé : RNA viruses have compact multifunctional genomes. During the course of infection, the genome or its derivatives must direct translation of virus proteins, genome replication and genome packaging. To realize these multiple roles, RNA virus genomes commonly have many overlapping coding and non-coding functional elements. Overlapping functional elements have often escaped detection because it can be difficult to disentangle the multiple roles of the constituent nucleotides via, for example, mutational analysis. On the other hand, RNA viruses evolve very rapidly and there are many sequenced isolates, thus providing potential for powerful comparative genomic analyses, even within single virus species. We have been using comparative genomics to systematically identify “hidden” functional elements in RNA virus genomes. Computationally identified features can then be efficiently targeted for experimental analysis. In parallel we are using RNA-Seq and Ribosome Profiling (Ribo-Seq) to study virus gene expression. Ribo-Seq is a high-throughput sequencing technique that maps the distribution of actively translating ribosomes on all mRNAs within a cell or tissue sample, thus giving a global snapshot of protein synthesis rates and translational regulation. We are particularly interested in characterizing non-canonical gene expression mechanisms – such as programmed ribosomal frameshifting, stop codon readthrough, ribosomal skipping, ribosomal reinitiation, IRES-mediated initiation, and programmed transcriptional slippage. Such mechanisms tend to be particularly prevalent in RNA viruses due to the unique constraints under which they evolve, but are also utilized in cellular gene expression and some have potential biotechnological applications.

    Contact : Olivier NAMY (olivier.namy

    Lieu : Bibliothèque - bâtiment 34 - campus de Gif

  • Vendredi 20 mars 2020 - - I2BC

    Journée du département Biologie des Génomes

    Lieu : Auditorium - bâtiment 21 - campus de Gif-sur-Yvette

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